Tuscany, and Florence in particular, is considered the cradle of the Renaissance. Although the entity "Tuscany" is a linguistic, cultural and geographical concept rather than a political reality, in the 15th century Florence extended its domination by annexing Arezzo and buying Pisa. And Livorno became the port of Florence.
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From Florence, the republic was dominated by the increasingly monarchical family of the Medici. Initially, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici ruled without titles, usually even without official headquarters. The Medici presided over the Florentine Renaissance.
There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when Savonarola and later Soderini ruled. Cardinal Giovanni de Medici retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, later becoming Pope Leo X. Florence was ruled by the Popes until 1527, when the citizens declared a republic again until 1530, which ended ended after a siege by an imperial and Spanish army. Pope Clement VII and Charles V then appointed Alessandro de Medici as the first hereditary sovereign.
The Sienese Renaissance
The municipality of Siena was incorporated into Tuscany in 1555 and Siena experienced a more conservative 'Siena Renaissance'. Lucca remained an independent republic until 1847, when it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the will of its people.
There are many excellent and quaint restaurants to discover in Tuscany, as well as all types of holiday accommodation in seasonal rental, judge for yourself: typical lodgings (Agriturismo), guest houses, spacious apartments, welcoming villas and luxurious castles with magnificent gardens and beautiful swimming pools waiting for you!